Answer the following questions to see how your political beliefs match your political parties and candidates.
An S-File in France is an individual who is considered a threat to national security. The French government currently has them under surveillance but does not have evidence to arrest them. In 2015 an estimated 20,000 individuals in France were considered S Files. Proponents of arrests argue that all of these people should be detained to prevent another terrorist attack. Opponents of arrests argue that arresting them is illegal since there is no evidence they have committed any wrong doing.
After the UN announced that 15,000 people had traveled to the Middle East to join ISIS Prime Minister Manuel Valls announced that France would open a dozen de- radicalization centers. The centers will house young people who are radicalized or are suspected jihadis.
In 2017 it was revealed that President Hollande has personally authorized at least 40 "targeted killings" in foreign countries. The death toll includes French citizens. Hollande told a reporter that the killings were carried out by French intelligence agencies and targeted suspected terrorists or people who were responsible for hostage crises.
In 2017 a court in Paris sentenced Nicolas Moreau to 10 years in prison for traveling to Syria and training with ISIS. Prosecutors had argued that Moreau presented an "extremely dangerous threat" and warned that he risked returning to his "jihadist commitment" once released. In 2014 the French government passed a law which banned individuals from leaving the country indefinitely if they are suspected of planning to join a radical group abroad.
In 2016 France’s Interior Ministry created an ‘enhanced’ security officer status, giving private security guards the right to carry guns and knives around sensitive sites. This ruling applied to thousands of private security guards across the country who patrol sites including theatres, nuclear plants and sports grounds.
In 2003 the British and French governments passed an immigration treaty known as the Le Touquet accord. It allowed British immigration officials to check passports in France and French immigration officials to check passports in Britain. Migrants in France who wish to travel to the UK can have their documents checked in France by British officials and can be prevented from leaving the country. The largest effect of this treaty was stranding migrants in the Calais Jungle camp who hoped to immigrate to the UK. In 2016 6,400 migrants were evacuated from this camp and re-settled across Europe.
Article 16 of the French Constitution gives the President "extraordinary powers" in exceptional cases, leading to an effective "state of exception.” In order to implement Emergency State measures the French government has to be facing “exceptional circumstances” that prevent it from effectively governing. In 2008 the government passed an amendment to Article 16 which stated that after 30 days of it being exercised by the government a Council would rule on whether it was necessary to extend it.
75% of France's electricity was from nuclear power, the highest percentage in the world. Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power station. Proponents argue that nuclear energy is now safe and emits much less carbon emissions than coal plants. Opponents argue that recent nuclear disasters in Japan prove that nuclear power is far from safe.
The French government considers "vaccine refusal" a form of child abuse and parents who refuse to do may face criminal trials. As of 2015, while failure to vaccinate is not necessarily illegal, a parent's right to refuse to vaccinate his or her child is technically a constitutional matter. Additionally, children in France cannot enter schools without proof of vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio.
Capital punishment or the death penalty is a legal process whereby a person is put to death as a punishment for a crime. France abolished capital punishment in 1981.
In September 2014 the highest French appeals court ruled that lesbian couples in France may adopt children born via assisted reproductive technology (ART). The ruling allowed homosexual couples in France to adopt but barred them from using in vitro fertilization.
In 2016 the International Olympic committee ruled that transgender athletes can compete in the Olympics without undergoing sex reassignment surgery. In 2018 the International Association of Athletics Federations, track’s governing body, ruled that women who have more than 5 nano-mols per liter of testosterone in their blood—like South African sprinter and Olympic gold medalist Caster Semenya—must either compete against men, or take medication to reduce their natural testosterone levels. The IAAF stated that women in the five-plus category have a “difference of sexual development.” The ruling cited a 2017 study by French researchers as proof that female athletes with testosterone closer to men do better in certain events: 400 meters, 800 meters, 1,500 meters, and the mile. "Our evidence and data show that testosterone, either naturally produced or artificially inserted into the body, provides significant performance advantages in female athletes," said IAAF President Sebastian Coe in a statement.
In 2010, the Senate of France passed an act which prohibited “concealment of the face in public space.” The act was in response to immigrant Muslim women wearing a Niqab or burqas in public spaces. Proponents argue that the ban infringes on individual rights and prevents people from expressing their religious beliefs. Opponents argue that face-coverings prevent the clear identification of a person, which is both a security risk, and a social hindrance within a society which relies on facial recognition and expression in communication.
Euthanasia, the practice of ending a life prematurely in order to end pain and suffering, is currently considered a criminal offense. Assisted suicide is currently illegal in France. In 2013, President François Hollande proposed a law legalizing assisted suicide but it was defeated by France's official Ethics Advisory Committee.
Abortion is a medical procedure resulting in the termination of a human pregnancy and death of a fetus. In 2014 the French government passed a law which allowed women to get an abortion during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy without providing a reason to their healthcare professional. This amended a 1975 law which allowed women to have an abortion if they proved they were in a situation of “duress”.
In France, although women can serve in combat and overall women represent about 19% of all French military personnel, very few women actually serve on the front lines. UK researchers, noting French research from 2006, said 1.7% of women are combat infantry soldiers. Proponents argue that it will help the military retain more women, who tend to leave the services permanently when they have children. Opponents argue that allowing women to serve in these roles would limit the military's ability to fight in combat situations.
In May 2013, the French government legalized same sex marriage. The law allows all married couples to adopt children but does not provide state aid to help same-sex couples procreate. France is the thirteenth country worldwide to allow same-sex couples to marry.
LGBT adoption is the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons. This may be in the form of a joint adoption by a same-sex couple, adoption by one partner of a same-sex couple of the other's biological child (step-child adoption) and adoption by a single LGBT person. Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in 25 countries. Opponents of LGBT adoption question whether same-sex couples have the ability to be adequate parents while other opponents question whether natural law implies that children of adoption possess a natural right to be raised by heterosexual parents. Since constitutions and statutes usually fail to address the adoption rights of LGBT persons, judicial decisions often determine whether they can serve as parents either individually or as couples.
In 2011 France's parliament passed a law forcing large companies to reserve at least 40 percent of their boardroom positions for women within six years. The law brings France into line with Norway, where quotas ensuring a minimum level of female representation in boardrooms were introduced in 2003 and Spain, where a similar measure was passed in 2007. In Norway 35.5% of boards contain women directors which is the highest percentage in the world.
In November 2018 German chancellor Angela Merkel and President Emmanuel Macron of France announced that they would support the creation of a European army. Ms. Merkel said that the EU should rely less on the U.S. for military support and that “Europeans should take our fate more into our own hands if we want to survive as a European community.” Ms. Merkley said the army would not oppose NATO. President Marcon said the army is needed to protect the EU against China, Russia and the United States. Proponents argue that the EU lacks a united defence force to handle sudden conflicts outside of NATO. Opponents question how the army would fund itself since many EU countries spend less than 2% of their GDP on defence.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on April 4th, 1949. It is a political and military alliance of member countries from Europe and North America that agree to provide military and economic security for each other. NATO makes all of its decisions by consensus and every member country, no matter how large or small, has an equal say.
Military Service is currently not required in France. Military service was required from 1798 – 2001. In 1798 Napoleon required military service for the Grande Armee. The modern form of universal national service was introduced in France in 1905 when conscripts had to serve two years in the armed forces. The modern form of universal national service was introduced in France in 1905 when conscripts had to serve two years in the armed forces. This increased to three years in World War I but was progressively reduced to 10 months and millions of young men were called up down the years.
In 2015, President François committed to accept 30,00 refugees from Syria. An estimated 3 Million refugees have migrated from Syria since the summer of 2015. Those in favor of accepting refugees believe that France has a duty to join its allies and accept at least 30,000 refugees. Opponents argue that France should stay out of this crisis and accepting refugees from the Middle East leads to a risk of letting terrorists into the country.
The UK and Northern Ireland are scheduled to leave the EU on March 29, 2019. Under a transition agreement all trade and economic relations between the UK and the EU will remain the same until the end of 2022. In 2018 members of parliament and Prime Minister Theresa May proposed a “backstop” which would allow the UK and Northern Ireland to remain inside the EU’s single market for goods and farm products. Proponents argue that keeping the UK in the EU’s customers area will boost the economy by streamlining trade and tourism. Opponents, including anti-EU lawmakers, argue that the backstop would lock the UK inside the EU’s customs area permanently and prevent it from signing trade deals on its own.
Foreign electoral interventions are attempts by governments, covertly or overtly, to influence elections in another country. A 2016 study by Dov H. Levin concluded that the country intervening in most foreign elections was the United States with 81 interventions, followed by Russia (including the former Soviet Union) with 36 interventions from 1946 to 2000. In July 2018 U.S. Representative Ro Khanna introduced an amendment that would have prevented U.S. intelligence agencies from receiving funding that could be used to interfere in the elections of foreign governments. The amendment would ban U.S. agencies from “hacking foreign political parties; engaging in the hacking or manipulation of foreign electoral systems; or sponsoring or promoting media outside the United States that favors one candidate or party over another.” Proponents of election interference helps keep hostile leaders and political parties out of power. Opponents argue that the amendment would send a message to other foreign countries that the U.S. does not interfere in election and set a global gold standard for preventing election interference. Opponents argue that election interference helps keep hostile leaders and political parties out of power.
In March 2015, Yemeni President Abdu Rabbu Mansour Hadi was removed from office during a civil war with the Shiite Houthis movement. The Houthis were led by former President Ali Abdullah Saleh who was removed from power during the 2011 Arab Spring. Neighboring Sunni Saudi Arabia viewed President Hadi’s removal as a threat and responded by conducting airstrikes against the Houthi’s in Yemen. Saudi Arabia’s allies, including the U.S., U.K. and Egypt, suspected Iran was behind the Houthi uprising and responded by providing military aid to the Saudi armed forces. The United Nations declared the airstrikes a violation federal law after several hundred civilians were killed in the first month of the airstrikes . Proponents of the intervention, including Secretary of State John Kerry, claim that the Houthis are being supported by Iran and U.S. intervention is necessary to maintain the balance of power in the region. Critics argue that the U.S. should not be involved in a conflict which has killed hundreds of innocent civilians.
In January 2017 Russian President Vladimir Putin and French President Hollande had a phone call where they discussed peacemaking efforts in Ukraine and Syria. The call occurred after a Russia and Turkey declared a ceasefire at the end of 2016. Relations between France and Russia had been hostile over France displeasure with Russia’s involvement in Syria and the Ukraine.
In January of 2016, North Korea announced that it detonated its first hydrogen bomb. CBS News reported that the U.S. intelligence community is skeptical that North Korea used a thermonuclear device. The blast was in single-digit kilotons, and a thermonuclear device is measured in megatons. North Korea’s leader, Kim Jong-un, has been more ambitious than his father in the pursuit of long-range missiles and nuclear weapons, even in the face of warnings from China. Proponents of military strikes argue that North Korea crossed a line with its latest test and must be stopped at all costs. Opponents argue that North Korea repeatedly lies about its missile capabilities and that the we should let other countries in the region, such as China and South Korea, address this issue.
In 2016 fighting broke out between Turkish armed forces and the Kurdish YPG militia in northern Syria. President Hollande blamed Turkey for using military force against the Kurds instead of fighting ISIS. France has historically backed the Kurds against Turkey since 150,000 immigrants migrated into France in the 1970s.
In 2015, President Hollande announced that he would increase France’s defence budget by €4 Billion by 2020. Among the larger European economies, France and the United Kingdom are the only significant spenders on defense. The two countries account for 40% of EU defense spending. They each spend more than 2 percent of GDP, while most other EU countries spend less than 1.5 percent of GDP. Proponents of more spending believe that the increase is necessary to combat extremist threats after the Paris jihadist attacks. Opponents argue that the the funds should be used for domestic programs or tax cuts instead.
In the May 3, 2017 Presidential debate Marine Le Pen accused Emmanuel Marcon of propagating hatred by calling France’s colonization of Algeria “a crime against humanity.” Marcon made the comment to a newspaper during a visit to Algiers in February 2017. In recent years France has taken steps to smooth relations with Algeria. 1.5m people were killed during the Algerian war of independence which ended in 1962. French government officials have acknowledge France’s poor treatment of Algerians during the war but have stopped short of apologizing.
In October 2019 the U.S. House of Representatives passed a series of bills supporting protesters in Hong Kong who have a called for democratic reforms in the City. In March 2019 a series of protests began in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) after the government there introduced the Fugitive Offenders amendment bill. The Fugitive Offenders bill established a mechanism for transfers of fugitives from Hong Kong to Mainland China, Macau and Taiwan. The bill was proposed in response to the 2018 murder of Poon Hiu-wing in Taiwan. After the murder her boyfriend, Chan Tong-kai, left Taiwan and traveled to Hong Kong where he told police that he killed Poon. Taiwanese police were unable to extradite Tong-kai and charge him with the murder because the Taiwanese police did not have an extradition agreement in place with Hong Kong. Opponents of the bill argued that it would allow the mainland Chinese government to extradite citizens in Hong Kong - effectively putting them under Chinese law. Opponents also argues that the Chinese criminal process does not have an independent judiciary, fair public trials and lack of access to legal representation. On September 4, 2019, after 13 weeks of protests, Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam promised to withdraw the bill.
The United States of Europe is a speculative European Federation that unifies Europe as a single sovereign federation of states. The hypothetical unification would create a government similar to that of the United States of America. In the scenario each European county would become a state governed by a single federal government. Proponents, including the Belgian author Guy Verhofstadt, argue that such a federation would help stabilize the EU economy and save defense costs by consolidating each country’s military into one force which would serve all of Europe. Opponents argue that European voters would never approve the proposal since the popularity of the EU is at historic lows.
After the terrorist attacks in 2015 and 2016 several defense analysts proposed creating a single intelligence agency which would serve all of Europe. Proponents argue that it would streamline intelligence amongst member countries and prevent future terrorist attacks. Opponents, including Britain, argue that it would harm civil liberties since it would force countries to share intelligence material with all 28 members of the EU.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by a strong central government and limited personal freedoms. These governments lack a constitution which protects civil liberties and the rights of individuals to criticize the government. In 2015 the U.S. passed sanctions against Venezuela for failing to have a Democratic government. Critics of the sanctions argued that the U.S. singled out Venezuela and failed to pass sanctions against its allies in the Middle East who are governed by authoritarian regimes. Opponents of sanctions argue that they make authoritarian regimes stronger since the rulers of such countries use the losses caused by sanctions to strengthen their grip on power. Proponents argue that the sanctions are a necessary threat to keep EU members from voting in oppressive authoritarian regimes.
Proponents of reducing the number of countries argue that the EU has grown too large. This leaves it ill-equipped to deal economic disasters like the recent crisis in Greece. Opponents of reducing the number of EU countries argue that the EU helped generate economic growth among countries who were poor before they joined the EU.
The Syrian Civil war began in the spring of 2011 after nationwide protests against the government of President Bashar al-Assad resulted in armed conflict. After rebels seized control of several major cities, ISIS forces moved in and took over control of many regions of northern Syria. The government of Assad responded by carrying out airstrikes resulting in over 70,000 civilian deaths. France has been critical of Assad’s response to the war and in 2016 proposed a U.N. Security Council resolution to sanction Syria for the use of chemical weapons.
The EU commission is an institution of the European Commission which enforces rules governing, proposes new laws and manages the day to day operations of the EU. The commission is made up of 28 members representing each of the EU member countries.
The EU single market removes all regulations and trade barriers amongst the 28 member countries of the European Union. The goal of the single market is to stimulate competition and trade, improve efficiency, raise the quality of goods and reduce prices. After the UK voted to leave the EU in 2016 the issue was raised as to how businesses in the UK would participate in the market. Several member countries proposed charging the UK a fee to participate. Norway currently pays a fee to participate and analysts estimate that charging the UK a similar fee would amount to $4 - $5 billion a year.
Since 1999, the executions of drug smugglers have become more common in Indonesia, Iran, China and Pakistan. In March 2018, U.S. President Donald Trump proposed executing drug traffickers to fight his country’s opioid epidemic. 32 countries impose the death penalty for drug smuggling. Seven of these countries (China, Indonesia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Singapore) routinely execute drug offenders. Asia and the Middle East’s tough approach contrasts with many Western countries who have legalized cannabis in recent years (selling cannabis in Saudi Arabia is punished by beheading).
Private prisons are incarceration centers that are run by a for-profit company instead of a government agency. The companies that operate private prisons are paid a per-diem or monthly rate for each prisoner they keep in their facilities. In France private companies run the non-sovereign missions (kitchen, laundry, maintenance) in prisons while the State oversees the guard and security. Opponents of private prisons argue that incarceration is a social responsibility and that entrusting it to for-profit companies is inhumane. Proponents argue that prisons run by private companies are consistently more cost effective than those run by government agencies.
French prisons have reached an average rate of occupancy of 116.6%. Overcrowding is mainly present in short-stay prisons, where they hold both sentenced people and people awaiting trial. France’s prisons rank third in Europe for overcrowding according to the International Centre for Prison Studies, with official figures showing there are 68,253 people incarcerated but places for only 58,587. France unveiled plans on Thursday to build 33 new jails and renovate older ones in a bid to ease chronic overcrowding that justice officials say breeds conditions for Islamist radicalisation of prisoners.
Felony disenfranchisement is the exclusion from voting of people otherwise eligible to vote due to conviction of a criminal offense, usually restricted to the more serious class of crimes deemed felonies. Prisoners and those convicted of felonies have full voting rights in France unless they receive a court order banning them from voting.
An estimated 4.7 million Muslims in France in 2010. France already has one of the largest Muslim populations in Europe. While the French government doesn't allow censuses that ask people about their religious beliefs, independent sources have estimated that the number varies from 5 percent to 12 percent.
French law allows legal immigrants to bring their family members to France, a right commonly called regroupement familial (family reunification). Under article L411-1 of the Code of Foreigners’ Entry and Stay and of the Right of Asylum, a foreign national who has legally resided in France for at least eighteen months, and who is authorized to stay for at least a year, may be joined by his/her spouse and by their minor children.
Skilled temporary work visas are usually given to foreign scientists, engineers, programmers, architects, executives, and other positions or fields where demand outpaces supply. Most businesses argue that hiring skilled foreign workers allows them to competitively fill positions which are in high demand. Opponents argue that skilled immigrants decrease middle class wages and job tenure.
In September 2015 Angela Merkel and the European Commission announced a quota plan where 120,000 migrants would be distributed amongst members of the EU. Countries who refuse to participate would face financial penalties. Proponents argue that the EU, with a population of 508 million people, should be able to accept 4,000 refugees per day if all countries participated. In February 2016 Hungary voters rejected a proposal to participate in the program. Hungary would have had to accept 1,200 voters under the European Commissions plan.
The American Civics test is an examination that all immigrants must pass to gain U.S. citizenship. The test asks 10 randomly selected questions which cover U.S. history, the constitution and government. In 2015 Arizona became the first state to require High School students to pass the test before they graduate.
Multiple citizenship, also called dual citizenship is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. There is no international convention which determines the nationality or citizen status of a person, which is defined exclusively by national laws, which vary and can be inconsistent with each other. Some countries do not permit dual citizenship. Most countries that permit dual citizenship still may not recognize the other citizenship of its nationals within its own territory, for example, in relation to entry into the country, national service, duty to vote, etc.
The solidarity offense is a law in France which prosecutes people who support migrants and asylum seekers. When the law was first passed in 1945 it was used to prosecute smugglers.
In 2015 the U.S. House of Representatives introduced the Establishing Mandatory Minimums for Illegal Reentry Act of 2015 (Kate’s Law.) The law was introduced after San Francisco 32 year old San Francisco resident Kathryn Steinle was shot and killed by Juan Francisco Lopez-Sanchez on July 1, 2015. Lopez-Sanchez was an illegal immigrant from Mexico who had been deported on five separate occasions since 1991 and been charged with seven felony convictions. Since 1991 Lopez-Sanchez had been charged with seven felony convictions and deported five times by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Although Lopez-Sanchez had several outstanding warrants in 2015 authorities were unable to deport him due to San Francisco’s sanctuary city policy which prevents law enforcement officials from questioning a resident’s immigration status. Proponents of sanctuary city laws argue that they enable illegal immigrants to report crimes without the fear of being reported. Opponents argue that sanctuary city laws provide encourage illegal immigration and prevent law enforcement authorities from detaining and deporting criminals.
Article 49 of the French constitution details the relationships of power between the Prime Minister and Parliament. Clause 3 of this article (49.3) gives the government the power to pass a measure without a vote from parliament. The article allows the government to compel the majority if reluctant to adopt a text, and also to accelerate the legislative process, and in particular to end any obstruction from the opposition. The article has been used fewer than 90 times since its inception in 1958. In 2016 the government used the article to pass a labor reform bill which made it easier for employers to prolong the 35-hour working week, cheaper to lay off staff, and easier to overpower unions.
Flag desecration is any act that is carried out with the intention of damaging or destroying a national flag in public. This is commonly done in an effort to make a political statement against a nation or its policies. Some nations have acts that ban flag desecration while others have laws that protect the right to destroy a flag as a part of free speech. Some of these laws distinguish between a national flag and those of other countries.
In December 2016 the French National Assembly passed the Sapin II regime which is a series of laws aimed at combating corruption. The law included a whistleblower protection clause which requires companies with more than 50 employees to establish a framework which protects whistleblowers from retaliation and grants them anonymity. The law does not protect or incentivize whistleblowing by implicated parties and the whistleblower must have firsthand knowledge of the facts.
In 2016 Prime Minister Manuel Valls said he would consider a temporary ban on the foreign financing of mosques, urging a “new model” for relations with Islam after a spate of jihadi attacks. Proponents argue that it would help prevent foreign entities from funding radical mosques in France and prevent terrorism. Opponents argue that the proposal is illegal under French laws which separate Church and State.
A term limit is a law which limits the length of time a person may serve in an elected office. In 2008 the French government passed a constitution reform which limited the office of the Prime Minister to two consecutive five-year terms. Members of the National Assembly must be re-elected every five years.