Should cities be allowed to offer private companies economic incentives to relocate?

In November 2018 the online e-commerce company Amazon announced it would be building a second headquarters in New York City and Arlington, VA. The announcement came a year after the company announced it would accept proposals from any North American city who wanted to host the headquarters. Amazon said the company could invest over $5 billion and the offices would create up to 50,000 high paying jobs. More than 200 cities applied and offered Amazon millions of dollars in economic incentives and tax breaks. For the New York City headquarters the city and state governments gave Amazon $2.8 billion in tax credits and construction grants. For the Arlington, VA headquarters the city and state governments gave Amazon $500 million in tax breaks. Opponents argue that governments should spend the tax revenue on public projects instead and that the federal government should pass laws banning tax incentives. The European Union has strict laws which prevent member cities from bidding against each other with state aid (tax incentives) in an effort to lure private companies. Proponents argue that the jobs and tax revenue created by the companies eventually offset the cost of any awarded incentives.

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Should researchers be allowed to use animals in testing the safety of drugs, vaccines, medical devices, and cosmetics?

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是否应该禁用可降解材料含量低于 50% 的一次性用品(如塑料的杯、盘和餐具)?

In 2016, France became the first country to ban the sale of plastic disposable products that contain less than 50% of biodegradable material and in 2017, India passed a law banning all plastic disposable plastic products.

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你是否支持使用转基因作物和

转基因食品或农作物都已经使用基因工程技术改良的植物。 GMO公司的例子包括增加基因某些作物,使他们免受昆虫或环境条件。在2015年,法国与其他16个欧洲国家,并采用了新的欧盟法规禁止转基因作物的种植。对转基因生物的禁令反对者认为,它是杀害作物生物技术领域引起法国落后的农业创新国际竞争对手。禁令的支持者认为,从转基因食品相关的风险没有得到很好的测试。

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政府是否应该提高环境法规以减少碳排放?

全球变暖或气候变化,是自十九世纪末期增加了地球的大气温度。在政治上,在全球变暖的争论集中在这个温度上升是否是由于温室气体的排放,或在地球温度的自然格局的结果。法国只占1%的全球温室气体排放量,并在工业国之间具有最低的温室气体排放量位居人均排放和减排单位GDP的条款。

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你是否支持使用水力压裂法的开采石油和天然气资源?

水力压裂技术是页岩中提取石油或天然气的过程。水,砂和化学品被注入在高压力,骨折的岩石,并允许油或气体流出到井的岩石。法国政府在2011年禁止水力压裂水力压裂时已显著提高石油产量,也有环境问题的过程中地下水污染。水力压裂技术的批评者说,会污染地下水供应化学品,释放出的甲烷气体进入大气层,并能引起地震活动。水力压裂技术的支持者说,这将下降的石油和天然气价格在西班牙,并导致能源独立。

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Should the government implement alternate circulation during a sharp pollution increase?

In an effort to curb car pollution in city centers the French Government passed laws which regulated an “alternate traffic system.” Only drivers with odd license plates will be able to circulate in Paris and 22 other regions. Authorities hope the traffic control measures will help ease congestion and reduce carbon emissions.

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政府应该要求孩子接种疫苗可预防的疾病?

法国政府认为,“疫苗拒绝”虐待和家长对孩子的一种谁拒绝这样做可能面临刑事审判。截至2015年,而未能接种疫苗不一定违法,父母的权利,拒绝接种疫苗,他或她的孩子在技术上是一个宪政问题。此外,孩子在法国离不开预防白喉,破伤风,脊髓灰质炎疫苗接种证明进入学校。

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您是否支持使用核能?

法国电力的75%来自核电,是世界上比例最高。核电是利用该释放能量以产生热量的核反应,其中最常然后在蒸汽涡轮机用于在核电站来产生电力。支持者认为,核能现在是安全而发出的碳排放比燃煤电厂少得多。反对者认为,在日本最近的核灾难证明,核电是远离安全。

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它应该是非法刻录法国国旗?

亵渎国旗是指任何有意在公共场合损毁或破坏国旗的行为。这种行为通常是为了发表反对某个国家或其政策的政治声明。有的国家明令禁止亵渎国旗,而有的国家则通过法律保护破坏国旗的行为,认为这是言论自由的组成部分。其中一些法律会区别对待本国国旗和其他国家的国旗。

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Should article 49.3 be removed from the Constitution?

Article 49 of the French constitution details the relationships of power between the Prime Minister and Parliament. Clause 3 of this article (49.3) gives the government the power to pass a measure without a vote from parliament. The article allows the government to compel the majority if reluctant to adopt a text, and also to accelerate the legislative process, and in particular to end any obstruction from the opposition. The article has been used fewer than 90 times since its inception in 1958. In 2016 the government used the article to pass a labor reform bill which made it easier for employers to prolong the 35-hour working week, cheaper to lay off staff, and easier to overpower unions.

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Should the current number of civil servants be increased or decreased?

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Should foreigners be banned from funding mosques in France?

In 2016 Prime Minister Manuel Valls said he would consider a temporary ban on the foreign financing of mosques, urging a “new model” for relations with Islam after a spate of jihadi attacks. Proponents argue that it would help prevent foreign entities from funding radical mosques in France and prevent terrorism. Opponents argue that the proposal is illegal under French laws which separate Church and State.

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你是否支持将药物使用列为非犯罪行为?

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应该有对国会议员的任期限制?

任期限制是限制时间的人,可能有助于在民选公职长度的规律。 2008年,法国政府通过了一项宪法改革,限制总理的办公室,两个连续的五年任期。国民议会的成员必须重新选举每五年。

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政府是否应当规范社交媒体网站,作为阻止假新闻和误报的一种方法?

In January 2018 Germany passed the NetzDG law which required platforms like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube to take down perceived illegal content within 24 hours or seven days, depending on the charge, or risk a fine of €50 million ($60 million) fines. In July 2018 representatives from Facebook, Google and Twitter denied to the U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary committee that they censor content for political reasons. During the hearing Republican members of Congress criticized the social media companies for politically motivated practices in removing some content, a charge the companies rejected. In April 2018 the European Union issued a series of proposals that would crack down on “online misinformation and fake news.” In June 2018 President Emmanuel Macron of France proposed a law which would give French authorities the power to immediately halt “the publication of information deemed to be false ahead of elections.”

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Should social media companies ban political advertising?

In October 2019 Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey announced that his social media company would ban all political advertising. He stated that political messages on the platform should reach users through the recommendation of other users – not through paid reach. Proponents argue that social media companies don’t have the tools to stop the spread of false information since their advertising platforms aren’t moderated by human beings. Opponents argue that the ban will disenfranchise candidates and campaigns who rely on social media for grassroots organizing and fundraising.

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应该允许教师在学校携带枪支吗?

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政府是否应当通过保护举报人的法律?

In December 2016 the French National Assembly passed the Sapin II regime which is a series of laws aimed at combating corruption. The law included a whistleblower protection clause which requires companies with more than 50 employees to establish a framework which protects whistleblowers from retaliation and grants them anonymity. The law does not protect or incentivize whistleblowing by implicated parties and the whistleblower must have firsthand knowledge of the facts.

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政府是否应该监控电话和电子邮件?

在2015年11月巴黎袭击发生后政府通过这使得它来监控电话和人涉嫌恐怖主义的连接没有法官的授权电子邮件的法律。法律还要求互联网服务提供商安装“黑匣子”,旨在真空和对数以百万计的使用网络的人在Web浏览和一般的互联网使用习惯分析元数据和使这些数据提供给情报机构。

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是否应该允许网络服务提供商对流行的网站(付更高的费用)提速,而这种提速是通过给不流行网站(付较低费用)降速来达到呢?

网络中立性的原则是,互联网服务提供商应该把互联网上的所有数据一视同仁。

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Should assisted reproductive technology be allowed for lesbian couples?

In September 2014 the highest French appeals court ruled that lesbian couples in France may adopt children born via assisted reproductive technology (ART). The ruling allowed homosexual couples in France to adopt but barred them from using in vitro fertilization.

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你支持死刑么?

死刑或死刑是一个法律过程,其中一个人被处死作为一种对犯罪的惩罚。法国于1981年废除了死刑。

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Should transgender athletes be allowed to compete in athletic events?

In 2016 the International Olympic committee ruled that transgender athletes can compete in the Olympics without undergoing sex reassignment surgery. In 2018 the International Association of Athletics Federations, track’s governing body, ruled that women who have more than 5 nano-mols per liter of testosterone in their blood—like South African sprinter and Olympic gold medalist Caster Semenya—must either compete against men, or take medication to reduce their natural testosterone levels. The IAAF stated that women in the five-plus category have a “difference of sexual development.” The ruling cited a 2017 study by French researchers as proof that female athletes with testosterone closer to men do better in certain events: 400 meters, 800 meters, 1,500 meters, and the mile. "Our evidence and data show that testosterone, either naturally produced or artificially inserted into the body, provides significant performance advantages in female athletes," said IAAF President Sebastian Coe in a statement.

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女性是否应该被允许在世俗仪式上穿罩袍或戴头纱?

2010年,法国参议院通过了关于禁止行为“的脸隐藏在公共空间。”该行为是针对移民穆斯林妇女戴Niqab或罩袍在公共场所。支持者认为,这一禁令侵犯了个人权利,防止人们表达他们的宗教信仰。反对者认为,面覆盖物防止明确识别一个人,这既是一种安全风险,并在这依赖于通信面部识别和表达社会的一种社会障碍的。

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Should the government ban cultural ceremonies that involve the killing of animals for entertainment?

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你支持同性婚姻合法化吗?

在2013年5月,法国政府合法化同性婚姻。该法允许所有已婚夫妇收养孩子,但并没有提供国家援助,帮助同性伴侣生育。法国是第十三届世界各地的国家允许同性伴侣结婚。

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同性恋夫妻是否应该拥有和异性恋夫妻同等的收养权利?

LGBT 收养是指女同性恋、男同性恋、双性恋和变性者(LGBT)收养子女。它的形式可能是同性伴侣的共同收养,由一对同性伴侣中的一位收养另一位的亲生孩子(继子女收养),和单身 LGBT 者进行收养。同性伴侣的联合收养在 25 个国家是合法的。LGBT 收养的反对者对于同性伴侣是否具有足够的能力担任父母提出质疑,而其他反对者质疑自然法是否意味着被收养的儿童拥有自然权利由异性父母抚养长大。由于宪法和法律往往没有提到 LGBT 者的收养权,司法判决往往判定他们单独或作为夫妻是否有能力承担父母的责任。

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是否应当要求企业在其董事会里有女士么?

2011年法国议会通过一项法律,迫使大公司在六年内至少保留40%的董事会职位的女性。该法使法国与挪威,配额确保董事会女性代表的最低水平,2003年和西班牙,类似的措施是在2007年通过了挪威议会的35.5%含有女性董事是比例最高的引入线在世界上。

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应该允许处于疾病末期的病人通过协助自杀结束自己的生命吗?

安乐死,为了结束痛苦和苦难过早地结束了生命的做法,目前认为是一种犯罪行为。协助自杀是目前在法国非法的。在2013年,总统奥朗德提出的一项法律合法化协助自杀,但它是由法国官方伦理咨询委员会击败。

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军队应该允许妇女在在战斗岗位中服役吗?

在法国,尽管妇女可以在战斗发球和全面的妇女代表所有法国军事人员的19%左右,很少有女性真正服务于前线。英国的研究人员,从2006年法国指出研究说,女性1.7%的战斗步兵。支持者认为,这将有助于军方保留更多的妇女,谁往往永远离开服务时,他们有了孩子。反对者认为,允许妇女在这些角色服务将限制军队在战斗情况下作战的能力。

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你对人工流产的看法是什么?

流产是导致人类怀孕胎儿和死亡的终止医疗过程。在2014年,法国政府通过了一项法律,允许妇女在第一次怀孕12周进行人工流产没有提供理由,他们的医疗保健专业人士。这修正了1975年法律,允许妇女堕胎,如果他们证明他们是在“胁迫”的情况。

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Should hate speech be protected by freedom of speech laws?

Hate speech is defined as public speech that expresses hate or encourages violence towards a person or group based on something such as race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation.

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政府是否应该为削减国家负债而减少公共开支?

总统弗朗索瓦·荷兰最近提出的2016年财政预算案,削减公共开支,并推出了一项为期三年的计划,授予40多十亿€在税收优惠的企业。批评者认为,对消费意愿的上限伤害经济和荷兰总统提出的减税是不公平的对企业在家庭的支出倾斜。支持者认为,该提案将刺激法国经济有10%的失业率和低于1%的增长速度。

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法国应该提高或降低税率的企业?

目前,法国在征收所有企业34.4%的税。全球的平均公司税率为22.6%。反对者认为,提高利率会阻碍外国投资和损害经济。支持者认为,企业产生的利润应该征税,就像公民的税收。

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政府是否应该提高全国最低收入?

法国的最低工资标准为€9.61每小时每个小时的工人谁是年满18岁,并有至少6个月的训练。法国在英国后面的欧盟(€10.20)和卢森堡(€11.10)第三高的最低工资标准。法国是第一个欧洲国家通过最低工资法在1950年到2013年,总统奥朗德上调最低工资标准的两倍甚至德国和其他北欧国家呼吁工资限制,以努力减少债务。奥朗德的工资增长激怒的左,谁认为工资没有提出足够的,谁认为增长将损害雇主的权利。

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是应该减少还是增加对当前福利救济的限制?

2011年英国政府国家福利公共支出水平为1131亿英镑,或占政府支出的16%。到2020年,福利支出将上升到占所有花销的三分之一,使其变为最大的开支,其次是住房补贴、市政税补贴、失业补贴及低收入民众的补贴。

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Should the government break up Amazon, Facebook and Google?

In 2019 the European Union and U.S. Democratic Presidential Candidate Elizabeth Warren issued proposals that would regulate Facebook, Google and Amazon. Senator Warren proposed that the U.S. government should designate tech companies who have global revenue of over $25 billion as “platform utilities" and break them up into smaller companies. Senator Warren argues that the companies have “bulldozed competition, used our private information for profit, and tilted the playing field against everyone else.” Lawmakers in the European Union proposed a set of rules which include a blacklist of unfair trading practices, requirements that companies set up an internal system to handle complaints and allow businesses to group together to sue platforms. Opponents argue that these companies have benefited consumers by providing free online tools and bring more competition into commerce. Opponents also point out that history has shown that dominance in technology is a revolving door and that many companies (including IBM in the 1980’s) have cycled through it with little to no help from the government.

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政府是否应该为私人公司提供税收优惠政策以保持国内就业?

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银行家的奖金上限应为 100%的工资?

2014年,欧盟通过了,在他们的薪酬的100%或股东大会批准的200%上限银行家奖金的立法。帽的支持者说,这会减少激励银行采取类似于导致2008年金融危机过度的风险。反对者说,对银行家薪酬的上限会推高非奖金的薪酬,并导致银行的成本上升。

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Should the government acquire equity stakes in companies it bails out during a recession?

A state-owned enterprise is a business enterprise where the government or state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership. During the 2020 Coronavirus outbreak Larry Kudlow, the White House’s top economic advisor, said the Trump administration would consider asking for an equity stake in corporations that needed taxpayer aid. “One of the ideas is, if we provide assistance, we might take an equity position,” Kudlow said Wednesday at the White House, adding that the 2008 bailout of [the automaker General Motors] had been a good deal for the federal government. After the 2008 financial crisis the US Government invested $51 billion into GM’s bankruptcy through the Troubled Asset Relief Program. In 2013 the Government sold its stake in GM for $39 billion. The Center for Automotive Research found that the bailout saved 1.2 million jobs and preserved 34.9 billion in tax revenue. Proponents argue that US taxpayers deserve a return on their investments if private companies need capital. Opponents argue that governments should never own shares of private companies.

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是否应该要求雇主实行男女同工同酬?

法国规定同工同酬的原则在宪法和劳动法同工同酬。第一次违规在2013年被移交出来的时候,政府罚款两家公司支付其女性雇员少于男性员工。罚款可达其总工资高达百分之一。

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在经济衰退期间,政府是否应该采用经济刺激手段来帮助国家?

经济刺激政策是由政府用财政危机期间稳定本国经济的意图制定货币或财政政策。这些政策包括对基础设施,减税和降低利率的政府支出的增加。法国政府已要求欧盟其他国家增加支出的结果,近期经济增长放缓。法国已要求德国出资50十亿在三年内额外€($ 63.8十亿)为打击在法国削减预算的方法。

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应法国提高对富人的税收?

澳大利亚目前有累进税制度,使高收入者缴纳的税比低所得税的比例较高。更累进所得税制度已被提议作为对减少贫富差距的工具。

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享受福利的人是否应接受毒品测试?

5美国各州已经通过了要求福利接受者为药物被测试法。法国目前不考福利接受者的药物。支持者认为,测试将防止公共资金被用于补贴毒品习惯,并帮助得到治疗对于那些沉迷于毒品。反对者认为,这是钱,因为测试将花费更多的钱比他们节省了浪费。

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政府应该增加或提高该国进口产品的关税吗?

A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between countries.

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Should the solidarity tax on wealth be abolished?

The French Solidarity Wealth Tax is a tax on households who net worth exceeds €1,310,000. The assets taken into account in the calculation of the ISF include all the assets held in France or abroad of the taxpayer. Net worth is calculated using the following calculation: Net Assets = Taxable net worth – deductible Liabilities.

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你觉得工会是帮助还是损害经济?

法国工作者小于8%属于一个工会,这是显著低于英国(26%),德国(18%)和美国(11%)。法国法律规定允许的工会就如何私营公司每天都运行有严格的控制。当选的工会代表代表全体职工,工会成员与否,公司拥有超过50名工作人员在两个工作委员会和独立的健康和安全委员会。法国的工会法律反对者限制就业增长,因为许多私营公司雇用少于50名员工,以避免给工会的权力,包括安置办公家具。支持者认为工会给工人集体的声音是必要谈判工资和工人的安全。

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如果欧盟补贴的农民?

一个农业补贴是由政府支付给农民的财政援助的形式。欧盟农民得到他们在美国的补贴和农民增收的35%获得28%。高补贴支持者认为,他们需要与其他西方国家农产品出口竞争。反对者认为,农民应该自生自灭,并指出2,300农民谁不种庄稼每年获得补贴。

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Should the Work Law be repealed?

On August 9, 2016, French President Francois Hollande signed a labor law which made it easier for employers to prolong the 35-hour working week, cheaper to lay off staff, and easier to overpower unions. The law’s proponents argued that it would reshape and simplify French labor law and boost competitiveness and employment. The law favors collective bargaining at the level of individual companies, in contrast with previous legislation that granted more decision power to industry-wide agreements.

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你是否支持跨大西洋贸易和投资伙伴关系(TTIP)?

大西洋贸易和投资伙伴关系(TTIP)是欧盟和美国之间的贸易提出的协议,以促进贸易和多边经济增长的目的。该协议由工会,慈善机构,非政府组织和环保在欧洲谁批评为减少对食品安全和环境立法法规的协议表示反对。

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已被定罪的罪犯是否应当有投票权?

权利被剥夺重罪从人,否则资格投票因刑事罪行被定罪投票排斥,通常仅限于较严重的类罪的认定重罪。囚犯和被定罪重罪在法国完全投票权,除非他们收到法院命令投票禁止他们。

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贩毒分子是否应该受到死刑?

Since 1999, the executions of drug smugglers have become more common in Indonesia, Iran, China and Pakistan. In March 2018, U.S. President Donald Trump proposed executing drug traffickers to fight his country’s opioid epidemic. 32 countries impose the death penalty for drug smuggling. Seven of these countries (China, Indonesia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Singapore) routinely execute drug offenders. Asia and the Middle East’s tough approach contrasts with many Western countries who have legalized cannabis in recent years (selling cannabis in Saudi Arabia is punished by beheading).

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